Subfamily:Theraphosinae
  Most of the tarantulas commonly sold in the pet trade come from this subfamily.  They vary widely in temperaments, size, appearance, and habitats.  However, all have urticating hair and all come from the Americas.  All are terrestrial and most burrow. 
     Use the links below to easily navigate to your chosen genus.
Select genus below:
Acanthoscurria Agnostopelma Aguanapelma
Ami Aphonopelma Bistriopelma
Bonnetina
Brachypelma Bumba
Cardiopelma*
Catanduba
Chromatopelma
Citharacanthus Clavopelma Cotztetlana Crassicrus Cubanana
Cyclosternum
Cyriocosmus Cytropholis Davus
Euathlus Eupalaestrus Grammostola
Hapalopus Hapalotremus Hemirrhagus Homoeomma Kochiana
Lasiodora
Lasiodorides Longilyra
Magulla
Megaphobema Melloleitaoina Metriopelma
Munduruku Mygalarachne Neostenotarsus*
Nesipelma Nhandu Ozopactus*
Pamphobeteus Phormictopus Phrixotrichus
Plesiopelma Proshapolopus
Pseudhapalopus
Pterinopelma
Reversopelma* Schizopelma Sericopelma Sphaerobothria Stichoplastoris
Theraphosa Thrixopelma Tmesiphantes Vitalius Xenesthis
           

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Genus: Acanthoscurria
This genus is chiefly South American, particularly Brazil and Argentina.  They were erroneously reputed to be one of the few genera in Theraphosinae that have stronger than average venom in the late 1990's, but scientific evidence and authoritative literature regarding their venom disputes such allegations.  It is likely a rumor spawned by pet-trade purveyors who stumbled upon research about the properties of these spiders' venom, but misunderstood what they were reading. However, the venom of this genus is quite noteworthy, as it may be used to combat certain harmful bacteria.


Genus
Species
Common Name
Odds n' ends
Acanthoscurria
acuminata, altmanni*, antillensis, atrox,
brocklehursti
A. antillensis is sometimes marketed as "Pink Patched Birdeater".
A. atrox
  "Matto Grosso Giant Black", or "Brazilian Giant Black". 

A. brocklehursti is usually marketed as "Giant Black and White."

A. antillensis is indeed from the Lesser Antilles, and is also found in St. Lucia and other Caribbean islands. The rest are chiefly found in Brazil.
A. acuminata was described by Schmidt and Tesmoingt in 2000;  A. altmanni was described by the same  duo in 2003, and is actually the same species as A. chacoana (per Bertani, 2003).
A. atrox is sometimes sold as "Brazilian Giant Black", and it is indeed large, dark, and found in southern Brazil.
A. brocklehursti (found in Para, Brazil) is similar to A. geniculata with the white bands on the legs. 
Acanthoscurria
chacoana
Bolivian Salmon Pink
 A large, somewhat leggy species with reddish hairs on its rear half.  May get to 7 or 8".
It has a wide range along the south-western border of Brazil, through Bolivia, Paraguay, and Argentina. Its habitat is variable, from the low, flooding plains of Pantanal Matogrossense (a park in  Brazil) to the drier, hilly regions.
Acanthoscurria
chiracantha, convexa
cordubensis,cunhae,cursor,
ferina, fracta
None 
South American. A. cursor was described from two male specimens found near Ceara, Brazil. It has very slight leg banding.
A. ferina
is found in Amazonas.
 A. fracta was originally described from a male specimen collected in Para, Brazil.  It is portrayed as similar to A. geniculata with narrower white stripes, different palpal organs, etc. 

Acanthoscurria
geniculata
Giant Whiteknee, 
Whitebanded tarantula,
Santarem Pink Haired
Stocky Brazillians that can grow to over 7" in legspan.  They have white bands on their legs and are somewhat nervous, flicking hairs readily (F.O.P. Cambridge makes the first mention in Western literature regarding urticatious bristles when describing the capture of a female Acanthoscurria geniculata).
They have recently become very popular in the pet trade due to their color, size, fast growth rate, and predilection for sitting in the open like members of the Lasiodora genus.
It is naturally found near Rio Branco/Santarem.

Acanthoscurria
gomesiana,
guaxupe, insubtilis
None South American.  Research of A. gomesiana's venom has revealed that, like some scorpion venom, it may be useful for combating certain bacteria and parasites (Silva, et al, 2000). 
A. insubtilis is found near San Mateo, Bolivia.
Acanthoscurria
juruenicola
Amazon orange banded A somewhat defensive terrestrial.  Dark overall, with reddish abdominal setae and slight banding at the joints of the legs.
Acanthoscurria
 maga, melanotheria, 
minor,musculosa, natalensis, 
parahybana,paulensis, 
pugnax, rhodothele,rondoniae
None All from South Amercia.
A. natalensis is a mouse-brown/grayish spider described from a female collected near Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, by Chamberlin.
A. musculosa may be found in San Mateo, Bolivia. 
Acanthoscurria
sternalis
None  Formerly known as A. gigantea, this defensive tarantula changes color from nearly black overall to a rust red before molting.  In addition to readily flicking hairs, A. sternalis has been known to spew its feces upon would-be attackers.
It ranges from Tucuman, Argentina, to Tatarenda, Bolivia.
Acanthoscurria
suina,tarda, theraphosoides
 transamazonica, urens, violacea, xinguensis
None According to Perez-Miles, A. suina commonly breeds in the Spring, with active males observed during cloudy, rainy days in Uruguay (Perez-Miles 45).
They also inhabit Formosa state, Argentina, near the protected lands on the south shore of the Pilcomayo river ("protected" is used loosely. Illegal logging takes place there, and sometimes stray cattle from private ranches reduce vegetation in the park).

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Genus: Agnostopelma

Obese tarantulas like Magulla, but there's no "footpad" (tarsal scopula) on the rear legs.  Also, the males have no tibial spurs.

Genus
Species
Common Name
Odds n' ends
Agnostopelma
gardei
None
From just south of Soata, west of Rio Chimomocha and its great canyon.


Agnostopelma

tota

None

Found near the border of Boyaca and Casnare, east of the sacred and majestic Lake Tota.  Tota is a large, clear, cool-water montaine lake, part of the source for the mighty Orinoco.  Unfortunately, it is also one of the most threatened bodies of water on Earth.


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Genus: Aguapanela

 Unique Colombian spider, with stridulating bristles galore, no spurs, and Type III and IV urticating hair.

Genus
Species
Common Name
Odds n' ends
Aguapanela arvi
None
Found west of the Magdelena River in the Colombian Andes.

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Genus: Ami

Genus
Species
Common Name
Odds n' ends
Ami
amazonica
None
A. amazonica is from extreme southeast Colombia, at the confluence of Rio Amazonas and Solimoes, where Brazil, Colombia, and Peru meet endangered monkeys.

Ami armihuariensis

None
From  Kugapakori-Nahua-Nanti "Reserve", where clearing for gas fields goes pretty well unobstructed.

Ami bladesei

None
Found on the Panamanian resort of Isla Colon, a sometimes setting for the popular  TV show "Survivor" and its various incarnations.   Fortunately, the resort industry realizes its income is ecodependent and takes steps to encourage sustainable tourism.

Ami cauxiana

None
Named after Cauxiana National Forest in Brazil, where 212 indigenous people live and somewhat subsist on trade in acai berries.  The logging industry is encroaching upon this habitat, home to both unique spiders and unique cultures of Homo sapiens.

Ami obscura*

None It's pretty obscure, as the female type is missing.  Locality data is unknown.  Perhaps from central Colombia.

Ami pijaos

None A. pijaos is found along the Magdelena River, on both the east and west shores.
Ami weinmanni

None Found south of Lago de Maracaibo, in Sierra la Culata National Park.
Ami yupanquii

None
From Puyo, Ecuador, where they are dealing with their water being the most contaminated in the province.


Genus: Aphonopelma

The only genus of tarantula naturally found in the United States.  Most of these long-lived (and slow-growing. . . some specimens may take 10 years or more to reach maturity in the wild!) tarantulas like a dry environment, but there are exceptions (the Central American ones of more hospitable climes are in gray).   They differ from most other genera of this subfamily in that they only have type I urticating setae.  Also, none of the females stridulate (Aphonopelma means "without sound")..  While there is no apparent external mechanism for stridulation found in either male or female Aphonopelma, one researcher believes he may have heard males stridulate (Prentice 1997).   Perhaps there is a communication mechanism in Theraphosids that is yet to be discovered. Many of the species in this genus aren't very thoroughly described; it is likely that it will be greatly reduced in number when more research is done.  For now, the massive and very thorough work of Chris Hamilton, Brent Hendrixson, and Jason Bond has done an incredible job of defining species within the United States.  You may view this exceptional work here:
Taxonomic revision of the tarantula genus Aphonopelma Pocock, 1901 (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Theraphosidae) within the United States. 

Genus
Species
Common Name
Odds n' ends
Aphonopelma
anax 
Texas tan 
Long-lived burrowers native to southern tip of Texas along the border with Mexico.  They have tan carapaces, reddish opisthosoma hairs, and are generally docile.
 Aphonopelma anitahoffmannae*  None  Recently described from Mexico.  It is a beautiful, gun-metal color overall with long, pale setae on the undersides of the femora and all over the dorsal side of the abdomen.   I wonder if it is female counterpart of A. serratum.

Aphonopelma
armada 
Texas Blackspot Superficially the same as A. hentzi.
Predominantly found near Midland-Odessa, but can be found as far east as Austin.
Aphonopelma atomicum

None  A true desert dweller, found in the incredibly xeric hills around Armagosa and Death Valley at the California/Nevada border.

Aphonopelma belindae

None These Panamanians are somewhat uniformly gray-brown dorsally, and found east of the Panama canal.  Perhaps the southernmost member of this genus.

Aphonopelma
bicoloratum
Mexican Bloodleg
 A. bicoloratum is a gorgeous spider from central west Mexico, near Nueva Italia de Ruiz, with deep orangish-red on the carapace and the ends of the legs, contrasted with dark femurs and opisthosoma.  Similar to B. boehmei, but less striking and more slender in build.  In fact, it was imported as such to Europe until Dr. Schmidt realized it is an Aphonopelma.
The mature males are black with reddish setae on the opisthosoma.
Aphonopelma
bistriatum*
braunshausenii*,

None  Range from the USA down to Brazil.
A. bistriatum was described in 1839 from a single male with locality listed as simply "Brasil".  Koch's description and illustration reveal little to place it in this genus. Petrunkevitch describes Koch's type as unidentifiable. 
A. braunshausenii was described in the spray of non-peer reviewed descriptions by Tesmoingt in the mid 1990's. 
 

Aphonopelma
burica
  Chestnut brown, 
Chestnut Zebra,
Costa Rican Bluefront

This Costa Rican has blue chelicerae fresh after a molt. Its marking is somewhat similar to its cousin, A. seemani, but is more brownish in color and has less-pronounced leg striping.  The spermathecae of the females don't have the "bat wing" notches like A. seemani- just two humps.  They are found in southwest Costa Rica, from Pavones up to Dominical.

Aphonopelma 
caniceps
 Big Bend gold, Gold carapace
Found near Guanajuato, unconfirmed range as far north as the Rio Grande.
Aphonopelma
catalina
None
Only a few specimens of this beautiful, dark species were found within a very limited area of Coronado National Forest.  

Aphonopelma
chalcodes 
Mexican Blonde,
Desert Blond
This species is often encountered in the western slopes of the Rockies in southern Arizona.  It's a handsome tan/biege tarantula that some say is defensive and other deem as quite docile.  I've only encountered the docile ones.
They have adapted to harsh desert conditions by being able to fast for long periods and require very minimal humidity.

Aphonopelma

chiracahua

None

Named after its locality in the Chiricahua mountains in extreme southeastern Arizona.


Aphonopelma
 
  cookei
 


 None

Found just west of Tampico, in moderate tropical savannah.

Aphonopelma

crinirufum

Costa Rican Bluefront (perhaps confused with A. burica)

Sympatric with A. seemani in northwestern Costa Rica. This species is sometimes offered in the pet trade under the name Citharacanthus crinirufus,which was its scientific calling until 1997.  Dark, with long reddish hairs.



Aphonopelma

crinitum

Golden carapace redrump, Mexican green


Hail from Mexico, near Guanajuato.
Aphonopelma
 duplex
None From Orizaba,  in the scrubby hills in the shadow of the mighty Pico de Orizaba
 

Aphonopelma eustathes None
Found near Durango, Mexico.


Aphonopelma

eutylenum

California ebony 


The females are gorgeous bi-colored Southern California girls.  The mature males are uniformly dark.  Found in xeric forest between LA and San Diego, as well as the forest of El Centro/Mexicali.

Aphonopelma gabeli None 
A. gabeli
can be found in southeeastern Arizona, at the border with New Mexico.

Aphonopelma geotoma El Milagro Chestnut
Indigenous to the San Carlos mountains; named after El Milagros ranch, not any miracles it performs.


Aphonopelma

gertschi
 

   


None 

Found near Hildago de Parral, Chihuahua.


Aphonopelma griseum None
From the chaparral of Baja Californa.

Aphonopelma hageni*
None
Known only from a single male. Locality data is not clear, nor does Strand's description reveal any significant difference between it and other northern Mexican Aphonopelma.

Aphonopelma helluo
A. helluo
is sometimes encountered by tourists on surf trips in Baja California, near  the landing site for the notorious Todos Santos slab.

Aphonopelma
hentzi
Texas brown 
 Incredibly wide-ranging, A. hentzi can be found as far north as Colorado, as far east as Kansas, and as far south as Texas and Arizona (West 2002, Richman 1999, Smith 1994).   Chiefly encountered in central Texas.
Aphonopelma hesperum*

None Could be anything.  The type is a juvenile male, and the locality data is vague.
Aphonopelma icenoglei None
A western Mojave dwarf species.

Aphonopelma iodius None A. iodius is similar to A. helluo, but has proportionally longer legs.  It also inhabits a wide range, from California to Utah.  In California, all through the central desert along Interstate 10, and north up to a well-conserved region east of San Francisco; in Utah, along Highway 15 through the incredibly beautiful Zion National Park and up to Salt Lake City.

Aphonopelma
johnnycashi

None
Found north of Highway 88 between Sutter Creek and Ione, about 20 miles south of Folsom Prison (Hamilton 2015).   Of course, the males are black.

Aphonopelma joshua
  
None
A. joshua
, from California, is small and lives at a relatively high altitude (over 3000 ft).  It is indeed named after Joshua Tree National Monument.

Aphonopelma lanceolatum
None
Small and stocky Nicaraguans, according to Simon's description.

Aphonopelma latens None A. latens is found near Polvon, Nicaragua, and has comparatively short metatarsi on legs IV.  Similar to A. seemani, but smaller and generally lighter grayish/brownish overall.

Aphonopelma levii* None
Only known from a single male from southwest of Durango, Mexico.  It is unclear how it stongly differs from other eastern slope Aphonopelma.

Aphonopelma madera
None
Found in Madera Canyon, in Pima county.

Aphonopelma mareki None
Dwarf species found in central Arizona, near Prescott National Forest.

Aphonopelma
 
marxi



None 

A. marxi can be found in partially forested areas near Sedona, AZ, as far north as Grand Canyon National Park, and may range east into western New Mexico as well, and north to the western slopes of Colorado. 
 

Aphonopelma
moderatum
 Rio Grande gold
A tarantula from southern Texas (found along the Rio Grande) that was given its common name by Marguerite Schultz. 
It is one of the more colorful US tarantulas, with tawny overall leg hair, wide, dark bands on the tibia, and a semi-metallic carapace.
Aphonopelma moellendorfi
None
Sympatric with, but genetically different than A. moderatum.  Also found along the Rio Grande.  The female is unknown (Hamilton 2015).

Aphonopelma mojave None
A. mojave
is incredibly small for a tarantula, but its range is huge. It lives all across the Mojave Desert, from southwest Utah to interior southern California.



Aphonopelma


mooreae




 
None

A. mooreae is a Mexican spider that looks somewhat similar to C. cyaneopubescens, but generally more drab and with a blue carapace. 
 

Aphonopelma
nayaritum*

None Collected somewhere in Nayarit. Only the male is known.

Aphonopelma

pallidum

None
These Chihuahuans are not common in the US pet trade; sometimes B. verdezi is sold as A. pallidum.  A. pallidum lives in the north Mexican desert, and is somewhat similar to A. caniceps, but the male's bulbs are distinctly different.



Aphonopelma



paloma, parvum





None
 

A. paloma
may be the smallest species of tarantula known (R. West, personal communication, 2002) besides R. annae.  It inhabits the dry regions of southern Arizona.
 

A. parvum is a closely related dwarf that lives east of A. paloma's range.

 

 


Aphonopelma peloncillo None Named after the Peloncillo Mountains in southwest New Mexico, this spider is near black (even the females) with a red rump.

Aphonopelma phasmus None A dwarf species similar to A. paloma and A. parvum, found just south of the Grand Canyon.

Aphonopelma platnicki* None Sympatric with A. helluo, and described from a single male specimen.   It is unclear if the slight variation warrants separation from A. helluo.

Aphonopelma prenticei None From all over the desert where Nevada, California, and Arizona join.  It is the most abundant and widespread turrent-building theraphosid in the US (Hamilton 2015).

Aphonopelma prosoicum* None Described from a single male found in La Palma, Baja.  The description is too vague to separate it from other Aphonopelma. (Chamberlin 1940).

Aphonopelma ruedanum None
From the Baja peninsula.

Aphonopelma saguaro None From the foothills of the Santa Catilina and Rincon mountains, southern Arizona (Hamilton 2015).

Aphonopelma sclerothrix None This Costa Rican is very similar to A. crinirufum, but with slightly different spermathecae.

Aphonopelma
seemanni
Costa Rican Zebra A jumpy Central American tarantula that has white/cream striping on its legs.   Unlike many other members of Aphonopelma, this one doesn't mind a bit of humidity.  Nervousness is particularly evident with many wild-caught adults, but most get quite calm in captivity after a time.
More information and photos of this species can be found here.

Aphonopelma serratum
None Only known from a single male with locality listed as "Mexico".   Cambridge notes the name comes from the prominent serration on the embolus.

 Aphonopelma steindachneri  None  Found in grassland near the Pecos River, New Mexico, south to Pecos, Texas, and maybe as far south as Big Bend National Park.

Aphonopelma stoicum* None This species may not belong to Aphonopelma, as the palps of the male are nothing like the palps of the other Aphonopelma (Reichling 2003).
 Aphonopelma superstitionense None  From the Superstition Mountains, central Arizona.

 Aphonopelma truncatum None  This Mexican is similar to A. caniceps.

 Aphonopelma vorhiesi  None From high desert (specimens have been collected at 7600 feet) in southern Arizona.  The region is home to the beautiful Coronado National Forest.

Aphonopelma xanthochromum None Lives in Nicaragua and northern Costa Rica. Like A. seemanni, it has a tawny underside and pale spinnerettes.  However, it does not have pronounced leg striping.  It's entirely possible that it is sometimes imported as A. seemanni, or confused with brownish A. seemanni.

Aphonopelma xwalxwal None The largest of the "dwarf" Aphonopelma, found near Palm Springs in Anza Borrego state park.  Only the male is known at this time (Hamilton 2015).

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Genus: Bistriopelma

This Peruvian genus is unique with its two separate patches of Type III urticating bristles.

Genus
Species
Common Name
Odds n' ends
Bistriopelma
lamasi
None
This small, beautiful spider is from vicuna country.   Once critically endangered, preserves such as Pampa Galeras have helped the vicuna rebound in recent decades.  Their wool (and fortunately not their hides, as was the case years ago) command the highest of prices in the fabric industry, a win-win for the local populace and the species.


Bistriopelma

matuskai

None
Found in Ampay National Sanctuary, an incredible meeting of a crater lake and the steep Andes mountains.  The sanctuary was established in 1987 to preserve the unique flora and fauna that occurs in the near-tropical river basin that sharply rises to over 16,000 feet above sea level.  The spider itself is found at about 14,000 ft. (Kaderka 2015) in a very mild, fairly dry climate.


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Genus: Brachypelma
Some of the more common pets come from this genus.  Due to the desire for them in the market, the modern history of this genus is awash with laws concerning exportation, slanderous rumors about hybrids, embarrassing moments in human history, and sometimes sad tales of mass exterminations. There is variance in their habitats, as the west Mexican varieties enjoy a drier climate while the Central American species thrive with a bit of humidity.

 
Genus
Species
Common Name
Odds n' ends
Brachypelma albiceps Amula Redrump This south-central Mexican species used to be considered an Aphonopelma species, until it was found that they possess both type I and type III urticating bristles and stridulatory organs.
Brachypelma albopilosum Curlyhair Obese, furry tarantulas that prefer somewhat humid conditions, but are hardy and adaptable to drier climes.  They are usually docile and slow moving, but may flick hairs or act nervous on occasion.
More information and photos of this species are located here.

Brachypelma
andrewi*
None A newly described species (1992, by Schmidt).  Some assert that it is actually Euathlus truculentus.
Brachypelma
angustum
Costa Rican Red  These, like many of the Central American members of Brachypelma, can do with a bit more humidity than their West Mexican relatives.
They look nearly indentical to B. vagans, but have long, reddish setae on legs IV.  Some assert that they're simply morphological variants.  Valerio's original description doesn't offer much in the way of detail.
Brachypelma
annitha*
None
Hails from Mexico and is very similar in appearance to B. smithi.  This may not be an actual species unto itself, but just a variant of B. smithi.
Brachypelma
auratum
Mexican Flameknee Southwest coast of Mexico.
Looks somewhat similar to B. smithi but with more boldly pronounced red patterning on the "knees."
Brachypelma
aureoceps 
Florida Golden Chestnut The female individual described in 1917 by Chamberlin was found in the USA (in the Dry Tortugas of the Florida Keys), but they were probably introduced from elsewhere (see notes under Brachypelma vagans and Phormictopus platus).
Some suspect that what Chamberlin was describing was actually B. ruhnaui.
Brachypelma
baumgarteni
Mexican orange beauty Another group of west coast Mexicans.  Some people have recently proposed that Marc Baumgarten produced a hybrid and submitted it as a real species to taxonomists, yet I have seen authoritative accounts of their natural range in Mexico (Locht 2000).  It is possible that, since the habitats of many members of this genus overlap, there is great interrelationship between them and natural hybrids could have been evolving into distinct species long before man learned to walk without his knuckles. 
Brachypelma
boehmei
Mexican Fireleg Dark overall color, stocky build, and reddish knee joints fading into pinkish/orange tibia. The tarsi are black.  These are another south-central species found on the Mexican west coast (south of Colima).
More information and a photo is located here.
Brachypelma
embrithes 
None This former Eurypelma is Panamanian.
Brachypelma
emilia
Mexican redleg This popular pet spider has one of the largest ranges of all the Brachypelma (the exception being B. vagans). It lives along the west coast of Mexico, from southern Mexico to the east bay, near Ciudad Obregon.
Brachypelma epicureanum Yucatan rustrump These are from the Yucatan Peninsula and are somewhat similar in appearance to B. vagans when young.  Older adults have less-pronounced red setae on the abdomen (sometimes none at all). Some suggest that they may be just morphological variants.
Brachypelma
fossorium, hamorii*
None 
B. fossorium is Costa Rican (they are somewhat common in the state of Guanacaste), while B. hamorii is Mexican.

B. hamorii may not be a species unto itself, but merely  a color variant of B. smithi.
Brachypelma
klaasi
 Mexican pink
 Similar to B. albopilosum, with a dark underlying color and golden hairs extending from the legs and opisthosoma.  From western Mexico, near Cape Corrientes.  It has been proposed that this species and B. ruhnaui  be given their own genus due to a slight difference in the spermathecae, but their geographic distribution and other factors retain them in the genus Brachypelma (Locht 200).  In Europe, however, it was popular for the pet trade to sell them as Brachypelmides species in what was likely an attempt to avoid CITES restrictions.
Brachypelma
ruhnaui*
None
 See notes above for B. albiceps, with which this species was recently synonymized (R. Rojas, pers. comm 2006).

Brachypelma
sabulosum
Guatemalan Red Rump Gentle terrestrials; very similar to B. vagans. Some believe they are morphological variants of the same species.
Brachypelma
schroederi
None
Jet-black spiders (sometimes with a pale carapace) from Mexico. Recently described by Rudloff. 
Brachypelma
smithi
Mexican redknee This species is commonly seen in movies and was the most popular pet tarantula for some time.  Despite its widespread popularity, B. smithi has a small natural range.  They're a neighbor of B. klaasi and are found in relatively small areas between Colima and Acapulco, on the west coast of Mexico.  Exportation from Mexico is now limited due to the CITES agreement.  However, that agreement doesn't protect them at all from destruction of their habitat, which is their primary killer (as early as 1958, William Baerg reported a 99% mortality rate in their natural habitat).   As a result, captive bred individuals now command a high price.
Brachypelma
vagans, vagans floridanus
Mexican redrump The "floridanus" moniker is a joke, not a subspecies.  A number of redrumps were found in an orange grove west of Ft. Pierce, FL, in 1996 (the colony may have originated as early as the late 1970s or 1986). The state attempted to eradicate them immediately (Edwards and Hibbard  2).   Some of these bugs survived, but their range doesn't appear to be spreading (Edwards personal communication).
They are normally from southern Mexico and Central America.
Brachypelma
verdezi
Mexican gray,
Mexican rose gray
B. emelia look-alikes with dark appendages.  Described by Schmidt in 2003.  What's sometimes sold as B. pallidum or Aphonopelma pallidum in the pet trade are likely specimens of B. verdezi.

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Genus: Bonnetina

Unique central Mexican tarantulas.  The females have single-lobed spermathecae that in some cases look somewhat like a half of a regular bi-lobed Lasiodora. Most are smaller than "average" and live under stones in the central-west Mexican hills.

Genus
Species
Common Name
Odds n' ends
Bonnetina alagoni
None Mature males have beautiful blue legs.  They are found in the somewhat lush, rocky, and equally beautiful Tepozteco National Park.  There is no doubt that the numerous coati in the area feast upon wandering males on occasion.

Bonnetina aviae
None The holotypes and paratypes of these small brown tarantulas were found in an urban cemetary just northeast of downtown Mexico City; others were collected in the amazing  Tepeyac National Park, a massive (1500 hectare) restoration project just north of the city.  While accounts of the Virgin Mary appearing there may not be confirmed, the restoration of vegetation amid the urban sprawl is evident.

Bonnetina cyaneifemur None B. cyaneifemur is pretty, with deep navy blue legs, reddish hairs on the abdomen, and a rosey carapace.  These may have been first captive-bred in Japan, and are now regularly bred in Europe. 
Bonnetina juxtantricola
None Found just outside the caves of Gruta de Juxtlahuaca park, where ancient hominid history has been recorded as well. 

Bonnetina papalutlensis
None From the hills along the Ayotec river in Guerrero, which was recently drained by an unexpected and massive sinkhole.

Bonnetina reyescastilloi
None Found in the dry scrub of Ayuquila, about  95 miles southwest of Mexico City.


Bonnetina

rudloffi

None

Recently described by Fabian Vol.  It's from west of the Ayotec, near hilly highway 37.

Bonnetina
tanzeri*

None Southwest Mexico.   It would be interesting to compare Schmidt's specimens to that of B. rudloffi.
Bonnetina tenuiverpis None
This beuatiful spider with a copper carapce and red rump was found in the remote hills just south of Presa Santo Tomas, about 8 miles west of Valle de Bravo.  Its name means "slender penis", after the shape of the male's "equipment" (Ortiz 2015).

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Genus: Bumba

This genus used to be Iracema, an anagram for "America", but the name was already preoccupied for a tropical fish.  Then it was Maraca (after Maraca Island, the type locality of B. cabocla), but that's already the name of a roach. So, now it is Bumba, in honor of the popular Boi Bumba festival in northeast Brazil.  

Genus
Species
Common Name
Odds n' ends
Bumba
cabocla
Brazilian Red Head
These beautiful spiders are only known from Maraca Island, a unique ecosystem on the border of evergreen rainforest and savannah.  The name is in homage to the indigenous people of Roraima.  The  female only has type IV urticating bristles, while the male has Types III and IV.

Bumba
horrida
Amazon Slender Leg
From Manaus.Similar to B. cabocla, but the red carapace is not as vibrant. Also, the female has Type III urticating bristles, and is slightly larger than that of B. cabocla.

Bumba
lennoni
None

From the diverse Caxiuana National Forest, a unique and somewhat isolated patachwork of  different ecosystems studied and monitored by the
Ferreira Penna Scientific Station.

Bumba
pulcherrimaklaasi*
None correctly attributed to any one species.  

It's hard to tell if this is its own species, or a match with something else in this genus. The type is missing its palps and the locality is simply listed as "Ecuador".  It is likely some type of Bumba, as the tibia and uriticating bristles match. The female paratype is not Bumba though, but Euathlus truculentus (Perafan 2014).



Genus:
Cardiopelma*

Genus
Species
Common Name
Odds n' ends
Cardiopelma
mascatum*
None
A new genus erected by Fabian Vol; likely not valid.  Possibly like miniature B. verdezi in appearance.  The description was based on shed exoskeletons.  No locality data was known (the cast skins were given to Vol from a hobbyist).

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Genus: Catanduba

These small Brazillians are fairly similar to Homoeomma and Plesiopelma, but the males have a "tooth" on the embolus and the 
females have spermathecae that look like broccoli.

Genus
Species
Common Name
Odds n' ends
Catanduba
araguaia
None
Named after its locality in Parque Estadual Araguaia.


Catanduba

canabrava
None
Found west of the new Cana Brava hydroelectric reservoir (and popular picnic park) in the central cerrado.

Catanduba flavohirta
None Found in Bahia, near Candueba.

Catanduba peruacu
None Found just south of the incredible Peruacu Caverns Park.

Catanduba piauiensis None  Found in the Embrapa experimental agricultural camp.

Catanduba simoni None Wide-ranging in central Brazilian cerrado.  This former Homoeomma is ornate with its "tiger striped" abdomen.

Catanduba tuskae None This small, unremarkably dark species is found all along Rio Paranapanema in southern Brazil in a variety of biomes, from Atlantic rainforest to cerrado.


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Genus: Chromatopelma

 
Genus
Species
Common Name
Odds n' ends
Chromatopelma
cyaneopubescens
Greenbottle blue Venezuelan spiders that are, in my opinion, some of the most beautiful tarantulas.  They have blue legs, reddish-orange opisthosomas, and green carapaces. They prefer a dry climate, make much web, and are skittish.  
Though they are from Venezuela, they are from an area subject to the typical northeast sea breezes.  Combine that with the temperature, and it dries out rapidly.  Yes, it's Venezuela, and yes it does get humid without the wind and sun at night, but they do just fine with normal household humidity and a full water dish. In fact, some assert that too much humidity can be detrimental.  

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Genus: Citharacanthus

 
 
Genus
Species
Common Name
Odds n' ends
Citharacanthus
alayoni
None Indigenous to Cuba.  It's named after Cuban arachnologist Giraldo Alayon Garcia.
Citharacanthus
crinirufus*
Costa Rican Bluefront 
(not to be confused with Aphonopelma burica)
Like Aphonopelma burica, these have blue chelicerae. See also Aphonopelma crinifrum
Citharacanthus
cyaneus, livingstoni 
longipes, longipes niger, meermani, sargi, spinicrus
None These range from Cuba to Central America.

C. spinicrus can do with with lower temperatures, as they're from the higher hills of Sierra del Cristal.

C. livingstoni is a burrower that is native to the rainforests of Guatemala and Belize.
Some specimens sold by "dealers" in the pet trade as "C. longipipes from Cuba" are likely a Phormictopus species.  C. longipipes doesn't live in Cuba- it's from far, far away in southern Mexico/northern Guatemala in a fairly different environment.  At the turn of the century, Guatemalan boys would "fish" these "aranas de caballo" out of their burrows and make them fight (Cambridge 22).

C. meermani is a Central American (northern Belize) that can inhabit the warm lowlands as well as the cooler highlands.

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Genus:  Clavopelma 

 
Genus
Species
Common Name
Odds n' ends

Clavopelma

tamaulipeca

None
These Mexican tarantulas were considered part of Aphonopelma until recently.  Unlike Aphonopelma, they actually have type III urticating hair as well as type I.  

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Genus: Cotztetlana

Spiders with only Type I urticating bristles and thick rear legs.

Genus
Species
Common Name
Odds n' ends
Cotztetlana
omiltemi

None
Amazing doppleganger of Eucratoscelus pachypus, but with urticating bristles.   Only a single female was found near Chilpancingo, Mexico in 1985 (Mendoza 2012).


Cotztetlana

villadai

None
This thick-legged beauty was found in the pasture land just west of Rio Lerma, at the border of Estado Mexico and Michoacan, sympatric with A. crinita and D. mozinno (Estrada 2014).


Genus: Crassicrus

 
 
Genus
Species
Common Name
Odds n' ends
Crassicrus lamanai Cinnamon tarantula, Belize cinnamon (known as the "antelope spider" in Belize) A somewhat skittish grassland inhabitant with a thick exoskeleton that was newly described by Steve Reichling and Rick C. West.  It lives in cleared land and is named after the Lamanai Forest Reserve of Belize.  It may range into Guatemala and southern Mexico as well (Reichling 1996).

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Genus: Cubanana

Genus
Species
Common Name
Odds n' ends
Cubanana
cristinae
None
These small tarantulas are chiefly found under stones in Holguin province, dwarfed in size by the sympatric Phormictopus auratus (Ortiz 2014).

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Genus: Cyclosternum

The genus name comes from the convex, round sternum found on these spiders.  They have distinct, separate spermathecae, like Aphonopelma, not the unique, unilobed "traingle" found in Davus.  Likewise, the males have clear spines on their tibial apophyses, not at all like those found in Davus.
What is most noteworthy is this is an incredibly wide-ranging genus, spanning nearly 45 degrees in latitude in a variety of habitats.
   
Genus
Species
Common Name
Odds n' ends
Cyclosternum
bicolor
None This small "tigerrump" (yes, it does have the stripes like Davus fasciatum) was found near Rio Barao del Magaco in Rondonia, Brazil.

Cyclosternum garbei, gaujoni None C. garbei is a small, dark spider that was found just south of the Brazilian Rio Grande, near Franca, in the state of Sao Paulo.

  C. gaujoni is found near Loja, Ecuador.

Cyclosternum
janthinum
None C. janthinum is found near Quito, Ecuador.
Cyclosternum kochi None Small, brownish spider found in Parque Nacional San Esteban.

Cyclosternum
macropus*
None The apophysis of C. macropus is strange- not quite like Davus, but also not like Cyclosternum.  It would be interesting to discover its female cogener.
Cyclosternum  obscurum*  None Is indeed obscure.  Locality is dubious, and no paratypes are known.
Spermathecae looks like that of Davus (Vol 2001, Schmidt 2003).

Cyclosternum palomeranum None The smallest known Mexican theraphosid, and, with its locality north of Manzanillo,  the northernmost member of this genus.

Cyclosternum rufohirtum None
Small, brown, and northern Venezuelan.

Cyclosternum
 schmardae, spinopalpus 
None
(something some importers call C. schmardae is marketed as as "yellow banded birdeater").


C. schmardae
is a small, grayish tarantula from Peru. It may also be found near Quito.  It has yellowish rings at the joints.  

C. spinopalpus
would be the southernmost member of this genus, found near Asuncion, Paraguay.
Cyclosternum viridimonte* None
From Puntarenas, Costa Rica.  It is unclear if this spider belongs in this genus due to the shape of its apophysis, which is like that of D. fasciatus.

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Genus:Cyriocosmus

A unique genus in that the males have a spine on the palpal bulb that, in most species, is so pronounced that it looks like they have a double-bulb.  The females have distinct "spring shaped" spermathecae. They are small, and most are quite colorfully ornamented.
 
Genus
Species
Common Name
Odds n' ends
Cyriocosmus bertae, blenginii None C. bertae was found in Rio Branco, southeast Acre, Brazil, sympatric with C. nogueira-netoi and C. ritae.  Acre, on the border with Peru, is literally "where the sidewalk ends."  Aside from a road and a few towns along its border with Amazonas,  it is largely untouched by modern civilization.   Of course, because there is oil and gas there, that's changing.  Like C. sellatus and C. versicolor and unlike the rest of the genus, C. bertae does not have a patterned abdomen (Fukushima et. al 2005).

C. blenginii was found near the Mamoré River, on the border of Rondonia and Bolivia.

Cyriocosmus chicoi None
There probably werre a lot more of this and other species of plants and animals, many undiscovered, before the Samuel hydroelectric dam was built in Rondonia.  Fortunately, the impact of the structure is serving as a lesson learned, and hopefully the environmental impact of future projects will be balanced with the benefits.
Cyriocosmus
elegans
None
This tiny beauty is wide-ranging in a variety of habitats along northern Venezuela and adjacent islands.  Some have been found on the northeast tip of Tobago, others in the hills of Parque Nacional San Estaban.

Cyriocosmus fasciatus, fernandoi None
C. fasciatus
was discovered near the Cuminá River, Pará State, Brazil, while
C. fernandoi is found just south of Rio Itenez o Guapore in Mato Grosso.

Cyriocosmus leetzi None Wide-ranging in untravelled, unpaved, and fairly unexplored southeastern Colombia.
Cyriocosmus nogueira-netoi None
Found in southeast Acre, Brazil

Cyriocosmus ritae None Known from all across the state of Acre, Brazil

Cyriocosmus sellatus None While C. sellatus does not share the autiful striped coloration of most members of this genus, its locality in Parque Nacional Serra do Divisor (on the border with Peru) is spectacular.


Cyriocosmus

 versicolor

None

By far the southernmost member of this genus, found in Salta, Argentina.  No "tiger stripes" on the abdomen.

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Genus:Cyrtopholis

A genus of Caribbean spiders that, like Aphonopelma, only have Type I urticating bristles.  However, they can and do stridulate.

Cyrtopholis a wide-ranging genus of similar spiders that inhabit various islands some distance apart (and some as far away as southern Brazil). 
One can only wonder if the shipping trade played a role in their distribution.
 
Genus
Species
Common Name
Odds n' ends
Cyrtopholisagilis, anacanta*
annectans,

C. agilis,
one of the smaller members of this genus, can be found in San Domingo, along with C. cursor.  

C. anacanta is supposedly found near Guantanamo, but there's no type, and it is unclear from Frangillo's description how it differs from other Cuban Cyrtopholis.
 
C. annectans (supposedly of Barbados, but may be extinct from the island)  and C. bartholomaei (formerly known as C. venatorius) are quite similar and may be the same species (Chamberlin 42).

Cyrtopholisbartholomaei *
bonhotei, bryantae
C. bonhotei can be found on Nassau.

C. bryantae is known from San Blas, in Cienfuegos, Cuba.
 
Cyrtopholisculebrae
cursor

C. culebrae
is named after its locality on Puerto Rico.


C. cursor may be found in the Dominican Republic.

Cyrtopholisfemoralis, flavostriata 
C. femoralis,
a tiny (small among a genus of small theraphosids), yellowish-brown tarantula with a fat femur on leg III, was discovered on Montserrat.  

C. flavostriata of the Virgin Islands has unique extra "nodes" on the spermathecae.

Cyrtopholisgibbosa
From Manzanillo, Granma, Cuba.

Cyrtopholis innocua*, intermedia *
ischnoculiformis 
C. innocua is Cuban. The description is so poor that I am not even sure it is Cyrtopholis.

There is no locality other than "South America" for C. intermedia. It could possibly be any Cyrtopholis, based on Shiapelli and Gerschman's treatment that separates it from Phormictopus, and it is likely from the upper Caribbean.

C. ischnoculiformis is found on Monte Cocuyo, Cuba.

Cyrtopholisjamaicola
Probably extinct due to introduced "pest control" on Jamaica (West personal communication 2002).

Cyrtopholismajor, media, meridionalis* 

C. major is known from Luyanó, Cuba.

C. media was described from two males and a female from St. Kitts, and is similar to but smaller than C. bartholomaei. 

Oddly enough, C. meridionalis was described from a specimen found in Taquara do Mundo (southern Brazil), which is far removed from the other species' locale (see also C. schmidti and C. zorodes).  Based on its description by Mello-Letao, it is unclear why it is in this genus.  

Cyrtopholisobsoleta*

Based on Frangillo's description, it is unclear how one can deduce that this spider is different from any other Cuban Cyrtopholis.






Cyrtopholis





  palmarum*, 
 plumosa,
portoricae 





C. portoricae
is marketed as Puerto Rican Pygmy
 





Small, defensive tarantulas from Puerto Rico.  Slightly narrower in build and less "bristley" than others of this genus.  Very similar to tiny A. seemani, but lack the peach- colored underside and spinnerets. 


  

 

Cyrtopholis
ramsi, regibbosa

C. ramsi is from Puerto Padre, Cuba, while C. regibbosa was found near the mouth of Rio Baconao.
Cyrtopholis
respina*, schmidti*

Cyrtopholis unispina

Sympatric with C. ischnoculiformis on Cuba.
Cyrtopholis
 zorodes*
None
Unlike the other Caribbean members, C. schmidti and C. zorodes are South American

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Genus: Davus

Genus
Species
Common Name
Odds n' ends
Davus
fasciatus
Costa Rican Tigerrump
A beautiful bug with a red and black abdomen.  Somewhat spastic. It's certainly not Cyclosternum. Ausserer described Cyclosternum as having, well, a cyclic sternum- it's wide, like a circle.
C. fasciatum and C. pentalore
have long sternums, certainly not nearly circular.  Furthermore, it has fused, triangular-shaped spermathecae, not resemblant of Cyclosternum at all. Likewise, the male's embolus is different, etc. etc.
In any case, I have not seen D. fasciatum in the US pet trade, except perhaps one example in a pet store/import center in the mid-1990's that also carried B. albopilosum from Nicaruagua. It appeared identical, but larger than females of D. pentaloris from Guatemala.


Davus

mozinno

None

Found in the pasture land just west of Rio Lerma, at the border of Estado Mexico and Michoacan  Unlike C. fasciatus and C. pentaloris, it is "plain-clothed."

Davusobscurus*
None
Quite possibly synonomous with another member of this genus.  Locality is unknown.
Davus

pentaloris

Guatemalan Tigerrump

Quite common in the pet trade., this small, fast-growing tarantula  is colorfully ornamented with a spectacular pattern of red and black.  Unfortunately, while common in Guatemala, wildlife exportation goes relatively unchecked  due to widespread government corruption.  The saddest part is that, while illegal smuggling from Guatemala is slowing down, it's not because of any law enforcement.  It's because there is less to take because there is less habitat.



Davus

viridimontis*

NoneFrom Puntarenas, Costa Rica.  Only the male is known.  

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Genus: Euathlus

 
Genus
Species
Common Name
Odds n' ends


Euathlus


latithorax 

pulcherrimusklaasi
truculentus
vulpinus,vulpinus ater

None

Unlike members of Brachypelma, members of this genus cannot stridulate.

Some E. pulcherrimusklaasi are striking with a gray overall color and metallic blue femurs, others have a gold carapace and deep black femurs.
They are supposedly very docile.
The type specimen for E. latithorax was mislabelled as "from Ghana".  Until Richard Gallon examined it, E. latithorax was thought to be an African species without urticating hair. 

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Genus:Eupalaestrus

 
 
Genus
Species
Common Name
Odds n' ends
Eupalaestrus campestratus Pink Zebra Beauty Pink hairs radiate from the opisthosoma and rear legs of E. campestratus.  It also has leg striping similar to A. seemani.  These are somewhat nervous opportunistic burrowers.  Though it looks somewhat similar to A. seemani, this species, like all members of this genus, is easily distinguished by its swollen (incrassate) tibia on legs IV. 
They may be found in Paraguay and Argentina.
Eupalaestrus spinosissimus None A grassland tarantula.  Rogerio Bertani revitalized this species in 2001.
Eupalaestrus weijenberghi Whitecollared Specimens in the pet trade exhibit a dull blue overall, except for the black opisthosoma that has light hairs protruding from it. This contrasts with Pocock's description of a spider with "foxy-red" hairs on the abdomen and transverse bands on the leg segments. 
Pocock's type (for P. saltator) was found in Soriano, Uruguay. 

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    Genus:  Grammostola

 
 
Genus
Species
Common Name
Odds n' ends

Grammostola

actaeon 

None 

From southern Brazil and Uraguay.  A big spider with sparse red setae on the abdomen (spiderlings and juveniles have vibrant red on the abdomen). It gets so large (perhaps almost 7" in legspan), in fact, that some times it is sold in the pet trade as "Grammostola gigantea", which is a synonym for the very similar G. iheringi.

Grammostola
alticeps
Brazilian Greysmoke
Despite its common name, the type was found in northern Uruguay. These docile black burrowers that also inhabit Rio Grande do Sol enjoy a drier climate.  It is not clear how this spider differs from Grammostola anthracina.
GrammostolaandreleetziNone
This smokey gray species is very unique for a Grammostola, as it is small (mature males are little over 3" in legspan), and the males molt out black upon maturity (Vol 2008).  All other known Grammostola males aren't remarkably dimorphic from the females. It's from extreme northwestern Uruguay, east of the Uruguay River.

Grammostola anthracina Brazilian Greysmoke
Wide ranging in southern Brazil and Uruguay.  If synonomous with G. alticeps, this is the name that would take priority, as it was described 61 years earlier by Koch.

Grammostola borelli* None
Unfortunately, the type is missing its spermathecae, so it is difficult to determine what species it may be, only that it is Grammostola (Gabriel 2009). It hails from Colonia Risso, near the Paraguay River and border with Mato Grosso do Sul.

     Grammostola    
burzaquensis
Argentinean rose

A
small (for a Grammostola), charcoal gray tarantula with tufts of pale setae; from northern Argentina; comfortable at about 50 degrees Fahrenheit (Ibarra 1946). What's more interesting is Ibarra's description spends more time worrying about tarantula bites than descrbing spiders, and he potrays the bite of G. buzaquensis as causing mild pain and local inflammation that subsides in a matter of hours in humans, yet rapidly paralyzing and shortly thereafter killing reptiles.  The paper also includes an interesting picture of a Grammostola sp. killing a small rattlesnake in situ.





Grammostola




cala*
None 
Only known from the male and synonymized with G. rosea, with which it is fairly identical (Legendre and Claderon 1984).   However, the type for G. cala was found near what's now Reserva Nacional Nonguen, which is not nearly as arid as the more northern region G. rosea inhabits.
 The is a slight difference with spination of the palp, and the spider has a pink fringe on the otherwise dark carapace, not the usual pronounced copper carapace typical of mature male G. rosea.  I have never seen this form in the hobby.  
See also notes under G. rosea and G. porteri.
Grammostolachalcothrix
G. chalcothrix
means "bronze hair", and  it's found in northeastern Argentina, west of the Parana River, near Rosario.
Grammostola
diminuta,
doeringi, 
None

G. diminuta
, found in the eastern foothill of the Andes in northern Argentina, is almost as small as G. andreleetzi
It would be interesting to compare it to G. mendozae, if types of G. medozae exist.

G. doeringi is found in Patagonia, Argentina.

 
Grammostola

gossei,
grossa
Pampas tawnyred

G. gossei
may be found in the Aconcogua valley, Argentina.



G. grossa is described as wide-ranging across southern Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay.  One would expect to find it in eastern Argentina as well, but it is unknown from there.
Grammostola
iheringi,
inermis
Entre Rios

G. iheringi
is a southern Brazilian and northern Uraguayan tarantula.  It's similar to G. actaeon

Keyserling named it after Dr. v. Ihering, who collected it (and many other Theraphosidae) in Taquara do Mundo, Brazil.

G. inermis may be found in the eastern foothills of the Andes, in western Argentina, east to Cordoba (Ferretti 2013).
Grammostola
mendozae

None

Small tarantula from the eastern foothills of the Andes in western Argentina.  See also G. diminuta.
Grammostola monticola
A medium sized spider from the Bolivian Andes, found at over 8,000 feet above sea level, with the peaks of mighty Mt. Ancohuma on one side and beautiful Lake Titicaca on the other.


Grammostola

porteri*

None

From northern Chile.
The sparse description of G. porteri gives one no firm reason  to conclude that they are the "brown form" previously sold as G. rosea.  For one, Mello-Letaio never examined types of G. rosea, and only makes comparison to Lasiodora.  Furthermore, assumption of speciation is made on the amount of stridulatory bristles on the coxa (G. porteri should have 24, according to Mello-Leitao), which unfortunately varies not only between specimens, but also gender (in fact, mature males of some species have different types of stridulatory bristles than their cogeners).  Likewise, G. porteri should be clothed in long, pink setae, not brown, according to Mello-Leitao.  
. All Schiapelli and Gershman's 1967 "description" of G. porteri says is that it is not Lasiodora. The 1971 "description" referenced in the WSC simply says, "We told you in 1967 that it is not Lasiodora".  
Given locality (Papudo), the shape of the bulb, and Mello-Letaio's remarks concerning habitus, G. porteri is perfectly synonomous with G. rosea.

See also notes with G. cala and G. rosea ater.


Grammostola
pulchra
Brazilian black
Arguably the best "pet" tarantula.  They are black, hardy, and very docile. However, they, like all Theraphosinae, have uritcating bristles that can be quite irritating, even through casual contact.
It's is uniformly charcoal gray to black throughout its molt cycle, and found in southern Rio Grande do Sul.
Grammostola pulchripes Chaco Golden Striped
From the southern Chaco (northern Argentina/southern Paraguay), chiefly near the Parana River, but also westward to the eastern slopes of the Andes.
These were recently introduced to the US pet trade in 1998 and are now becoming widespread in pet stores.  They look like huge, shaggy A. seemani with grayish carapaces and thick legs.
They may get over 6", perhaps nearly 7", in legspan and are docile.

Grammostola
rosea,
rosea ater*
Chilean rose, Rosehair, Chiliean common, Chilean Flame, "True" Rosehair
These are hardy, generally docile, and long lived spiders that prefer dry, cool conditions.  They are one of the more common Chiliean theraphosidae, found near Santiago and Valparaiso, and at least all the way up into the desert near Coquimbo (a brownish form, sometimes called Grammostola sp. North or described as Grammostola rosea ater).

 They are very common in petstores and used to be called "Phrixotrichus spatulata" (and other variations on the spelling of the word "spatulata").

For a time, profiteering pet traders sell a "Grammostola cala" or a "Phrixotrichus cala".   It has been suggested that G. cala and G. rosea are the same species, and the two names have been synonomized many times by many different scientists, most recently by Schmidt in 1998 (Platnick 2001). 
 In any case, you may be likely to see a rather reddish color of G. rosea being sold as G. cala.  All you'll get if you buy one is a G. rosea that is pinker than most others and a thinner wallet.  The "red phase" or "red morph"  of G. rosea (oft collected from Parque Panul near Santiago) is readily available from reputable dealers for a reasonable price.


Rosehairs are known for their strange habits, such as fasting, skipping molts, and not moving very much.
More information and photos are available here.
Grammostola vachoni
None widely used,  though I have once seen it marketed as the very creative "Argentinean Smokey Topaz".

Quite a wide range in northern Argentina and adapatable to numerous biomes.

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Genus: Hapalopus

 
 
Genus
Species
Common Name
Odds n' ends
Hapalopus
butantan, formosus, guianensis, nondescriptus, tripeppi, triseriatus
None From northern South America.
Small tarantulas with vibrant coloration.
H. formosus is found near Bogota, Columbia.

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Genus: Hapalotremus

 
 
Genus
Species
Common Name
Odds n' ends
 

Hapalotremus    
albipes, chilango, coztic, cyclothorax eros, exilis, gertschi, muticus, ocellatus, papalotl, scintillans 
None Primarily Brazilians. Six new species were described for this genus by Perez-Miles and Locht in 2003.

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Genus: Hemirrhagus


 
Genus
Species
Common Name
Odds n' ends
  Hemirrhagus 
cervinus,major
peruvianus, pernix
None So little is known about this genus; their distinct physical attributes are poorly recorded.
H. pernix used to be a member of Cyrtopholis until a major revision by Perez-Miles and Locht in 2003.It lives near Pic d'Orizaba, Mexico. 
Hemirrhagus   
elliotti, grieta
 mitchelli, nahuanum
 puebla, reddelli, stygium
None Blind Mexican cave tarantulas!
No eyes! Even the females have extremely long legs and slender bodies.  These used to be members of their own subfamily called Spelopelminae until a major revision by Perez-Miles and Locht in 2003.

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    Genus: Homoeomma

 
 
Genus
Species
Common Name
Odds n' ends
     





  Homoeomma         
brasilianum
elegans, familiare
hirsutum, humile
montanum, nigrum
 pictum,
strabo*, stradlingi*, uruguayense
villosum
None Most are found in central South America.  H. brasilianum was found near Rio de Janeiro.  The males of that species are relatively small. 

H. nigrum is found near Rio 

H. pictum has a beautiful "tiger-striped" abdomen and is found near Caras, Peru. 

The male and female type specimens for H. strabo and H. stradlingi were found near Rio. Pocock believed that these male types were the counterparts to H. nigrum, not a separate species. 

The types for H. villosum were found near Taquara do Mundo.  Due to the variety of sizes and slight differences in coloration, Keyserling accidentally declared five separate species for it.

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Genus: Kochiana

Genus
Species
Common Name
Odds n' ends
Kochiana
brunnipes
None
From highly fragmented patches of forest about 20 miles northwest of Maceio in Alagoas.  Clearly different spermathecae and embolus than Cyriocosmus, and much, much different locality, though externally the two look similar.


Genus: Lasiodora

 
 
Genus
Species
Common Name
Odds n' ends
Lasiodora
acanthognatha, benedeni,
boliviana, brevibulba, carinata
citharacantha
None These range from northern South America to Central America.  L. boliviana is found near Espirito Santo, Bolivia.
Lasiodora
cristatus
Brazilian Red and White Beautifully colored with striped legs, a light carapace, and  reddish hairs on the opisthosoma.
Reputed to be quite defensive with its urticating hairs.
Formerly known as Vitalius cristatus. Note: the description above refers to the pet trade "L. cristatus", which is perhaps a Nhandu species (see Nhandu chromatus)
Lasiodora
cryptostigma
curtior, differens, difficilis
dolichosterna, dulcicola
erythrocythara,fallax, fracta
gutzkei*, icecu, isabellina 
itabunae, klugi, lakoi
mariannae, moreni, panamana 
pantherina
  See Metriopelmafor L. gutzkei. 
L. curtior is found near Rio.
L. differens is very similar to L. klugi, except its ocular tubercle is flatter and broader and its legs are stouter.  It is found in Minas Geraes, Brazil.  Sadly, it's "mining country" (diamonds in specific) and land there is cleared and stripped without concern for the unknown fauna of the region. 
L. klugi is reputedly an active hair flicker, like the majority of this genus.
L. fallax is found near Tijuca, Brazil.
L. isabellina is found near Rio.
L. panamana may be found on the southern peninsula of Panama, near Chitre.

See Metriopelma for L. pantherina

Lasiodora
parahybana
 Salmon Pink Birdeater These look somewhat similar to a leggy B. albopilosum, but get much, much larger and have pinkish abdomen hairs instead of golden.  Also, they are bold and readily flick urticating hair.  They're supposedly easy to breed and lay many eggs.  In captivity, they like to sit out in the open.
More information and photos are available here.
Lasiodora
parvior, pleoplectra, puriscal
rubitarsa, saeva,spinipes
sternalis
None These range from northern South America to Central America.  L. parvior is, unlike most members of this genus, a small tarantula. 
Lasiodora
striatipes
Brazilian Giant Brown Very defensive rainforest species
Lasiodora
subcanen, tetrica,
None From Brazil and Venezuela, respectively. L. tetrica is from near Caracas.
     Lasiodora       None From Trinidad. See Metriopelma

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Genus: Lasiodorides*

 
Genus
Species
Common Name
Odds n' ends
Lasiodorides polycuspulatus, rolinaen* None From Peru. L. polycuspulatus was recently described by Schmidt & Bischoff in 1997.  Specimens from damp, warm regions of Peru are often more darkly colored than those from cooler, drier climates.
L. rolinaen was named after Isabelle Rolin
Couvrer in 1999 by Tesmoingt.
         Lasiodorides         striatus Stripeleg,
striped birdeater,
Peruvian black
Peruvian.
Moved over from Pamphobeteus in 1997 by Schmidt.

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 Genus: Longilyra
 

Genus
Species
Common Name
Odds n' ends

johnlonghorni




Genus:Magulla


Genus
Species
Common Name
Odds n' ends

brescoviti



buecherli



janeira



obesa




Genus:Megaphobema

 
 
Genus
Species
Common Name
Odds n' ends
Megaphobema
mesomelas
Costa Rican redleg
A former Brachypelma species that is very prone to hair flicking, but seldom resorts to biting.  They are a high-altitude species that ranges all along Costa Rica's central mountains at cool, humid elevations of over 4000 ft. I have seen males active in evenings at about 60 degrees F. Like all members of this genus, they have incrassate femora on legs III.
Megaphobema
peterklaasi
None Central American
Megaphobema
robustum
Colombian giant redleg
Large spiders with red legs, dark carapaces, and reddish hairs that protrude from the opisthosoma.  Since Columbia is closed to exportation, these big (6-8" in legspan) and nervous tarantulas command a high price.  Like others of this genus, they can defend themselves with a bizzare "spin attack" in which they rapidly turn around in an attempt to spike their attacker with their hind legs.
Megaphobema teceae None The southernmost member of this genus from Juruti, Brazil.
The region is going to be mined by an aluminum company, starting in 2008. It is unclear what impact that might have on the local species, but remembering to recycle your aluminum is not a bad idea. . .
     Megaphobema        
velvetosoma
Ecuadorian brownvelvet
Newly described by Schmidt in 1995

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Genus: Melloleitaoina

 
Genus
Species
Common Name
Odds n' ends
Melloleitaoina crassifemur None Found in Argentina

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Genus:Metriopelma
No males of this genus have tibial spurs.

 
 
Genus
Species
Common Name
Odds n' ends
Metriopelma
breyeri, coloratum,
drymusetes,
familiare
None  The mouse-brown M. breyeri may be found near Guanajuato, Mexico. 
M. drymusetes can be found at high elevations (above 4000 ft) in Costa Rica.
M. familiare is found near Caracas, Venezuela.
Metriopelma
gutzkei* Gutzke's Tarantula A single male of this spider was found in Belize by Steven Reichling in 1995.  It resembles a B. vagans, but has no tibial spurs. 
It was described as a Crypsidromus species, but that genus was placed in synonomy with Lasiodora. This spurless puzzle clearly does not belong there.
The male is the only individual known; it is possible that the species is not native to Belize, but was a stowaway in the soil of landscaping plants (Reichling 2003). 
Metriopelma
nigriventre, pantherina*,
spinulosum
None M. pantherina, from southern Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul) may be a Nemesiid. According to Pocock, it is perhaps the perhaps the female counterpart to the former Metriopelma auronitens (now found to be a Nemesiid).

M. spinulosum is found in north/central Guatamala.

Metriopelma trinitatis,
trinitatis pauciaculeis
None Tiny, dark spiders from Trinidad. Currently, these are technically a Lasiodora, but clearly do not belong in that genus. 

 

Metriopelma variegata None

 

Newly described in 1955 from Venzuela. 
       Metriopelma      
velox
None 
(A spider called "M. velox" has been marketed as "Costa Rican Giant", though the actual M. velox is not a large tarantula, and nor was the type found anywhere near Costa Rica)

 

A small, mahogany brown tarantula found in Pambelar and Carondelet, Ecuador.
Metriopelma
zebratum
Costa Rican Suntiger (not to be confused with Psalmopoeus irminia) This webby tropical species requires a fair amount of humidity.  While very similar in range and appearance to Davus fasciatum, they are easily distinguished as the males have no tibial spurs.

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 Genus: Munduruku

Genus
Species
Common Name
Odds n' ends
Munduruku bicoloratum None
This colorful spider is almost like a merger of Hapalopus and Plesiopelma, yet the spermathecae match neither, and nor does the male's spur. Females have Type II and IV uritcating bristles. Found at the confluence of Rio Trombetas and the mighty Amazon. named after the Munduruku people.  What's heartening is Alcoa sponsored the fieldwork.  Hopefully, the company will take into consideration the unique fauna of the region before mining and utilize resources in a responsible manner.  Still, recycle your cans.








Genus: Mygalarachne

Genus
Species
Common Name
Odds n' ends

Mygalarachne
brevipes None Known only from one female found in Honduras over 145 years ago. It has Type I and Type III uritcating bristles (Gabriel and Longhorn 2011).

Genus: Nesipelma*

   
Genus
Species
Common Name
Odds n' ends

Nesipelma

insulare

None

A Caribbean tarantula from Nevis .  Very similar to Cyrtopholis; in fact, it is unclear if it warrants generic separation from Cyrtopholis based of Schmidt and Kovarik's description.

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Genus: Nhandu
This genus is very closely related to Lasiodora, yet does not possess stribulatory organs, which is ironic considering how hirsute most of its members are.  They are generally from central Brazil, with the exception of N. carapoensis, which ranges southeastward into Sao Paulo state and south into Paraguay.

 
Genus
Species
Common Name
Odds n' ends
   Nhandu           
carapoensis
Brazilian Red Nervous spiders that readily flick hair. The males have no tibial spurs, unlike the rest of the genus. They're also a little unique in that they only have "vestigal" Type III uritcating bristles.  They are wide-ranging in southern Brazil, including the incredibly diverse Pantanal Matogrossense.
Nhandu
cerradensis
None A newly discovered species with somewhat subtle, elegant white horizontal bands at the leg joints.   The live in Chapada dos Veadeiros, a cerrado palateau with some of the oldest rock formations on Earth (perhaps 1.8 billion years old). The area's waterfalls are legendary, and fortunately some of the plateau is a park that somewhat protects the numerous endangered animals (such as maned wolves, tapirs, etc.) indigenous to the region.
Nhandu
chromatus
Brazilian Red and White
Beautifully colored with striped legs, a light carapace, and  reddish hairs on the opisthosoma.
Reputed to be quite defensive with its urticating hairs.
Formerly known as Vitalius cristatus. The description is by  Schmidt and published in HJ Peters' magazine called "Tarantulas of the World."   That publication is non-peer reviewed.
Nhandu
coloratovillosus 
Brazilian black and white
Formerly known as Brazilopelma coloratovillosum,
these Brazilians have black and white bands on their legs, somewhat similar to A. geniculata. They are from the cerrado/rainforest transition zone of Mato Grosso.
Nhandu
tripepii
  Brazilian Giant Blonde
 These uniformly "khaki" spiders were formerly known as Vitalus vulpinus, as Schmidt thought they only had Type I urticating bristles and only cursorily examined a cast skin and worn mature male. He also failed to make comaprisons to related material.
Anyway,  N. tripepii is found in northcentral Brazil.  What's fascinating is that Rogerio Bertani acquired a specimen from Acailandia that had no eyes, not even a tubercle. It captured and ate prey just fine, molted several times in captivity, but never developed any sort of eye structure on the carapace (Bertani 2001). 

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Genus:  Ozopactus*

 
Genus
Species
Common Name
Odds n' ends


Ozopactus


ernsti*


None

Venezuelan.   It is difficult from Simon's sparse description of the female to deduce why this species merits a separate genera. What little data is available (spermathecae photo by Schmidt, if it is even the correct specimen) points toward perhaps synonomy with Metriopelma
.
The male is not described.

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Genus: Pamphobeteus
A cladistically similar genus to Xenesthis.
Note: P. platyomma is currently considered an invalid name.
The majority of this genus is from a unique and geologically ever-changing locale (the eastern rift valleys of the Andes' Northern Volcanic Zone); a fair amount of humidity is neccesary for these burrowers to thrive.


Genus
Species
Common Name
Odds n' ends
Pamphobeteus
antinous
Bolivian Blueleg,
Steely Blue Legged 
These spiders with metallic blue legs may get over 7" in legspan.
It was Pocock who coined the term, "steel blue lustre" regarding their coloration. 
Pamphobeteus
augusti, ferox
None
Northern South America. P. augusti is found in Los Puentes, near Quito (Ecuador). 
Pamphobeteus
fortis
Colombian brown
Colombian
Pamphobeteus
insignis
Colombian purplebloom
Colombian. Like P. nigricolor, it has a purplish-blue lustre fresh after a molt. 
Pamphobeteus
nigricolor
Common bluebloom,
Bluebloom birdeater
A former Lasiodora with a wide range (from Bolivia to Colombia). Very similar to P. insignis, but without barbed hairs around the trochanter of the palps. Most specimens are slightly bluer than P. insignis, too. 
Pamphobeteus
ornatus
Colombian pinkbloom
Like the others, found in western Colombia, in the lush, species-rich Rio Dagua valley. These have, in Pocock's words, a "pinky-red bloom" (and later "rosy pink") after a molt. The male palpal bulb is, oddly enough, less "oranate" than that of other males in the genus. 
  Pamphobeteus      
ultramarinus 
None
 Newly described by Schmidt in 1995
Pamphobeteus
vespertinus
Redbloom tarantula
These reddish-violet spiders are smaller than P. nigricolor and are found near Quito (Los Puentes).

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Genus: Paraphysa

 
 
Genus
Species
Common Name
Odds n' ends
 Paraphysa            
parvula, scrofa
P. scrofa is sometimes sold as "Dwarf Rose" in the pet trade These were thought to be part of the Pseudhaplopus genus as recently as 1985, but were retained in their own genus by Schmidt and Weinmann in 1997.
P. scrofa was one of the first tarantulas recorded in taxonomic literature by Molina in 1788.
Since then, it was mistaken for a Chilean rosehair for about 100 years, then called manicata, then it was a rosehair again, then manicata again, then finally it was called P. scrofa in 1996.  They are clearly different from G. rosea because they have no stridulatory setae.
They live in Chile and Argentina. The latter has a wide north/south range; types were found from Santiago down to Valdivia in Chile. It is quite adaptable to a variety of conditions. The former is found near Valparaiso. It has a longer, more oval carapace (that of P. scrofa is nearly a circle). The two can also be easily distinguished by the fact that P. scrofa has short back legs (shorter than leg I) and P. parvula has longer back legs than front legs. 

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Genus: Phormictopus

 
Genus
Species
Common Name
Odds n' ends
Phormictopus
atrichomatus
Red Island Brideater Assertive brick colored Central American with a purplish sheen.
Found on the islands northeast of Honduras.
Phormictopus auratus None These golden Cubans are sometimes sold as P. cubensis.
Phormictopus
australis, brasiliensis
None
From Argentina and Brazil, respectively
Phormictopus                     
cancerides 
Dominican Giant 
Haitian Brown;
Arana Cacata;
Tarantulas that have a purple sheen as adults, but go through many color variations depending on age and environmental conditions.  They may grow to 7" in legspan and were banned in Florida until recently.
 They are found all over the West Indies, particularly the Dominican Republic, Haiti, and eastern Cuba.
Despite the amusing lore perpetuated by tourists to the DR, the common name "cacata" has absolutely NOTHING to do the the Latinate word "cacata!" 
It's simply a Taino word for "large spider." 
They are active, beautiful, easily reproduced, and underrated in the pet trade.
Phormictopus  
cautus, centum, cubensis*
dubius, hirsutus, meloderma*, nesiotes, platus, ribeiroi
None Chiefly Caribbean, though P. ribeiroi may be encountered in Brazil. 

P. cubensis is obviously Cuban.  The exact type locality is unknown- the bottle from Felipe Poey (the collector) said "Havana", which is simply the port from where all the samples were shipped. It's similar to P. cautus, and Chamberlin felt that it may indeed be synonymous with that species (Chamberlin 60).

The exact locality for P. meloderma is unknown; Chamberlin suspected the type to be from somewhere in the West Indies. 

The Cuban P. nesiotes is like a small P. cancerides.

The two female specimens Chamberlin used for describing P. platus in 1917 were found in the United States (in the Florida Keys, in the Dry Tortugas National Park); however, the curator of the Florida State Collection of Arthropods (Dr. G.B. Edwards, FDACS) has not seen any tarantula that is truly indigenous to Florida and only one introduced species that was able to establish itself (Brachypelma vagans).


Likewise, my personal observation attempts in the Dry Tortugas park have turned up no tarantulas.  They were perhaps stowaways on the frequent ships traveling to a fort located in the Tortugas.

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Genus: Phrixothrichus
  

Genus
Species
Common Name
Odds n' ends

 
    Genus: Plesiopelma


 
Genus
Species
Common Name
Odds n' ends
Plesiopelma  
flavohirtum, gertschi
imperatrix insulare,longisternale myodes,rectimanum semiaurantiacum
None South American.  P. longisternale is a small, brownish tarantula from southern South America.

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Genus:Pseudhapalopus


Genus
Species
Common Name
Odds n' ends
Pseudhapalopus
aculeatus, spinulopalpus
None From Bolivia and Colombia

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Genus: Reversopelma*

 
Genus
Species
Common Name
Odds n' ends
Reversopelma petersi* None Newly described in 2001 by Schmidt. 
The description is published in a non-peer reviewed pet-trade magazine.

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Genus: Schizopelma

 
Genus
Species
Common Name
Odds n' ends
Schizopelma
bicarinatum, masculinum sorkini
None From southern Mexico and Central America; S. sorkini was newly described by Smith in 1995.

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Genus: Sericopelma

 
Genus
Species
Common Name
Odds n' ends
Sericopelma
commune,dota
fallax, ferrugineum, 
None Chiefly Central American, but may range south to Venezuela and Brazil. S. commune is from northwestern Panama, in the province of Chirique. Like others of this genus, the males have no tibial spurs.
Sericopelma generala Costa Rican Coffee Light brown tarantulas that can achieve an above-average size.  Their burrows are not an uncommon site in the reddish dirt of Costa Rica's central hills.
Sericopelma
immensum, melanotarsum 
rubronitens
silvicola,striatusupala
None Central American burrowers.
S. rubronitens was first found in northwestern Panama.

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Genus:Sphaerobothria

 
Genus
Species
Common Name
Odds n' ends
Sphaerobothria hoffmanni None Costa Rican.  These have a little black "plug" in the fovea (the place where there is normally an indention in the carapace) similar to the horned tarantulas of Ceratogyrus spp.   They have only type I urticating bristles.

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Genus: Stenotarsus*

 
Genus
Species
Common Name
Odds n' ends
Stenotarsus
scissistulus
None
Possibly not a distinct genus.  The description doesn't do much to separate it generically from Plesiopelma or Homoemma.  Described by Schmidt and Tesmoingt in 2002.  This genus name is also already a genus of fungus-eating beetles. (Note: the genus name has since been changed to "Neostenotarsus".  I'm not going to bother making a new table for it, as I may be deleting it soon).

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Genus: Stichoplastoris

 
Genus
Species
Common Name
Odds n' ends
Stichoplastoris
angustatus
asterix, denticulatus 
elusinus, longistylus obelix schusterae,stylipus
None Central American.
C. asterix is native to north-central Costa Rica. They are small and sleek. I've seen a similar-looking spider west of there near Puntarenas that may or may not be the same species. 
S. elusinus inhabits a similar range.

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Genus:Theraphosa

 
Genus
Species
Common Name
Odds n' ends
Theraphosa apophysis Goliath pinkfoot Big.  Possibly the largest tarantula in captivity was a pinkfoot.  It was kept in a petstore in Bronx, NYC.  Charlie Siederman  allegedly imported a male
to his store that had a legspan of over 13 inches! However, he didn't turn it over to any "authorities", arachnologists or record keepers (Schultz 2000). 
Likewise, Mark Hart may have had one at about that size (Breene and O'Brien 54).
In any case, this spider was first thought to be T. blondi, then it got its own genus (Pseudotheraphosa) and now it's back in the Theraphosa genus due to similarities in urticating hair that it shares with the more well-known goliath (though the males of this species have tibial spurs, while mature T. blondi males do not.  Apophysis loosely means "spur").
Theraphosa
blondi
Goliath birdeater This is the famous record-holder.  Currently, it is called the world's largest spider in both weight and legspan.  Accounts vary from source to source, but I think Guinness lists the title keeper at 11".  Their weight may exceed 5 ounces and their urticating hairs are downright horrendous. 
Wild-caught individuals are often found to have some sort of malaise, perhaps due to frequent collection and holding in importers' warehouses in small, dank containers.

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Genus:Thrixopelma

 
Genus
Species
Common Name
Odds n' ends
Thrixopelma
cyaneolum, ockerti, pruriens
None (T. cyaneolum is often sold as "Cobalt Red Rump") From Peru and Chile, respectively.  T. cyaneolum is embossed with spectacular blues, somewhat similar to a bushy, blue-carapaced C. cyaneopubescens. 

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Genus: Tmesiphantes

 
Genus
Species
Common Name
Odds n' ends
Tmesiphantes
hickeringi, minensis, nubilus, physopus,
spinopalpus
None South American.  T. spinopalpus was newly described by Schaefer in 1996.  All members of this genus have a swollen femur on leg III.

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Genus:Vitalius
This genus is closely related to Pamphobeteus and as a result there have been many changes in 2001.
The most notable change is that V. platyomma hasn't in fact been declared its own species (specimens are simply referred to as Pamphobeteus sp. for now).

 
Genus
Species
Common Name
Odds n' ends
Vitalius buecherli  None A newly described species.
Vitalius dubius
 

 

None This former Pamphobeteus species is found in Brazil.
Vitalius longisternalis, lucasae,
paranaensis 
None Newly described species
Vitalius   roseus, sorocabae, vellutinus, wacketi None Brazilian

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Genus:Xenesthis

 

There are likely more than three species in these northern S. American genus that inhabit the deep, hilly forests.
 
   
Genus
Species
Common Name
Odds n' ends
Xenesthis immanis Colombian lesserblack,
Purplebloom
A large, dark tarantula with slightly noticable light striping on the legs.  Freshly after molting, they appear to have a purplish sheen, with an incredibly "electric" pattern on the carpace.  All members of this genus share similarities with distinguishing facets of Pamphobeteus spp., including thier unique arrangement of tibial apophysis on the metatarsus.

They are from the hills near Bogota, and range as far northeastward as Tama National Park in Venezuela, and, at least according to Simon, into the lowlands of Colombia where it joins Panama.

Xenesthis intermedia None Rare, dark, and big tarantulas that have a bluish tint after molting.

 

Xenesthis monstrosa None These huge, darkly colored Columbians (no specific locality other than "New Grenada" is given) are unknown in the pet trade. According to Pocock's description, it is very similar to X. immanis. However, it is larger. The legs of female  X. immanis are longer in relation to its body size, whereas the legs of female  X. monstrosa are short relative to its body (for example: the body length of the female of X. immanis is 69mm, and leg IV is 92mm. The body length of the female holotype of X. monstrosa is 74mm, but leg IV is only 89mm).

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according to thdfgfgdffffffffffffffffffffffCOPYRIGHT GARRICKO'DELLOfffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff.  Fortunately, small patches are preserved in and , both of which were granted the honorable status of  members. 

Both spiders are somewhat similar in build, with thin hind legs and flALL RIGHTS RESERVEDattened forelegs
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